High Fat Diet Regulation of β-Cell Proliferation and β-Cell Mass

Open Endocrinol J. 2010;4:10.2174/1874216501004010066. doi: 10.2174/1874216501004010066.

Abstract

Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is characterized by relative insulin insufficiency, caused when peripheral tissues such as liver, muscle, and adipocytes have a decreased response to insulin. One factor that elevates the risk for insulin resistance and T2D is obesity. In obese patients without T2D and initially in people who develop T2D, pancreatic β-cells are able to compensate for insulin resistance by increasing β-cell mass, effected by increased proliferation and hypertrophy, as well as increased insulin secretion per β-cell. In patients that go on to develop T2D, however, this initial period of compensation is followed by β-cell failure due to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. The forkhead box transcription factor FoxM1 is required for β-cell replication in mice after four weeks of age, during pregnancy, and after partial pancreatectomy. We investigated whether it is also required for β-cell proliferation due to diet-induced obesity.

Keywords: FoxM1; Obesity; diabetes; pancreas.