Pepper seed extract suppresses invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells

Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(1):159-65. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2014.853814. Epub 2013 Dec 16.


This study was performed to determine the antimetastatic activities of chili pepper seed on human breast cancer cells. The water extract of chili pepper seeds was prepared and it contained a substantial amount of phenols (131.12 mg%) and no capsaicinoids. Pepper seed extract (PSE) suppressed the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 10, 25, and 50 μg/ml (MDA-MB-231: IC50 = 20.1 μg/ml, MCF-7: IC50 = 14.7 μg/ml). PSE increased the expression level of E-cadherin up to 1.2-fold of the control in MCF-7 cells. PSE also decreased the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 25 and 50 μg/ml. PSE treatment significantly suppressed the invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The motility of cancer cells was apparently retarded in the wound healing assay by the PSE treatment. Although our data collectively demonstrate that PSE inhibits invasion and migration of breast cancer cells, further study is needed to identify specific mechanisms and bioactive components contributing to antimetastatic effects of chili pepper seed.

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology*
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Cadherins / genetics
  • Cadherins / metabolism
  • Capsicum / chemistry*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Movement / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Phenols / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Seeds / chemistry*


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Cadherins
  • Phenols
  • Plant Extracts
  • MMP2 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
  • MMP9 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9