Rationale and design of the DIPAK 1 study: a randomized controlled clinical trial assessing the efficacy of lanreotide to Halt disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Am J Kidney Dis. 2014 Mar;63(3):446-55. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.10.011. Epub 2013 Dec 15.


Background: There are limited therapeutic options to slow the progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Recent clinical studies indicate that somatostatin analogues are promising for treating polycystic liver disease and potentially also for the kidney phenotype. We report on the design of the DIPAK 1 (Developing Interventions to Halt Progression of ADPKD 1) Study, which will examine the efficacy of the somatostatin analogue lanreotide on preservation of kidney function in ADPKD.

Study design: The DIPAK 1 Study is an investigator-driven, randomized, multicenter, controlled, clinical trial.

Setting & participants: We plan to enroll 300 individuals with ADPKD and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) who are aged 18-60 years.

Intervention: Patients will be randomly assigned (1:1) to standard care or lanreotide, 120 mg, subcutaneously every 28 days for 120 weeks, in addition to standard care.

Outcomes: Main study outcome is the slope through serial eGFR measurements starting at week 12 until end of treatment for lanreotide versus standard care. Secondary outcome parameters include change in eGFR from pretreatment versus 12 weeks after treatment cessation, change in kidney volume, change in liver volume, and change in quality of life.

Measurements: Blood and urine will be collected and questionnaires will be filled in following a fixed scheme. Magnetic resonance imaging will be performed for assessment of kidney and liver volume.

Results: Assuming an average change in eGFR of 5.2 ± 4.3 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year in untreated patients, 150 patients are needed in each group to detect a 30% reduction in the rate of kidney function loss between treatment groups with 80% power, 2-sided α = 0.05, and 20% protocol violators and/or dropouts.

Limitations: The design is an open randomized controlled trial and measurement of our primary end point does not begin at randomization.

Conclusions: The DIPAK 1 Study will show whether subcutaneous administration of lanreotide every 4 weeks attenuates disease progression in patients with ADPKD.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01616927.

Keywords: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD); cyst progression; disease trajectory; glomerular filtration rate (GFR); kidney volume; quality of life (QoL); renal disease; somatostatin analog.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Disease Progression
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Peptides, Cyclic / administration & dosage
  • Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use*
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / drug therapy*
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant / physiopathology
  • Quality of Life
  • Somatostatin / administration & dosage
  • Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Peptides, Cyclic
  • lanreotide
  • Somatostatin

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01616927