Dynamic regulation of transcriptional states by chromatin and transcription factors

Nat Rev Genet. 2014 Feb;15(2):69-81. doi: 10.1038/nrg3623. Epub 2013 Dec 17.


The interaction of regulatory proteins with the complex nucleoprotein structures that are found in mammalian cells involves chromatin reorganization at multiple levels. Mechanisms that support these transitions are complex on many timescales, which range from milliseconds to minutes or hours. In this Review, we discuss emerging concepts regarding the function of regulatory elements in living cells. We also explore the involvement of these dynamic and stochastic processes in the evolution of fluctuating transcriptional activity states that are now commonly reported in eukaryotic systems.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromatin / genetics*
  • Chromatin / metabolism
  • Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Humans
  • Models, Genetic
  • Nucleosomes / genetics
  • Nucleosomes / metabolism
  • Protein Binding
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic / genetics*


  • Chromatin
  • Nucleosomes
  • Transcription Factors