Population-based studies report a beneficial health effect and a lower mortality rate for diets rich in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze differences between various forms of diet and health-related variables. The sample for this study was taken from the Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006/07 (N = 15,474). Multivariate analyses of variance adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) were conducted to examine health-related behavior, health, and quality of life depending on different forms of diet. Additionally, differences in the SES and body mass index (BMI) were analyzed. Our results show that a vegetarian diet is associated with a better health-related behavior, a lower BMI, and a higher SES. Subjects eating a carnivorous diet less rich in meat self-report poorer health, a higher number of chronic conditions, an enhanced vascular risk, as well as lower quality of life. In conclusion, our results have shown that consuming a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with better health and health-related behavior. Therefore, public health programs are needed for reducing the health risks associated with a carnivorous diet.