Purpose: Mutated isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) 1 and 2 produce high levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). We investigated whether, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), serum 2-HG would predict the presence of IDH1/2 mutations at diagnosis and provide a marker of minimal residual disease (MRD).
Patients and methods: Serum samples from 82 patients at diagnosis of de novo AML (IDH1/2 mutated, n = 53) and 68 patients without AML were analyzed for total 2-HG and its ratio of D to L stereoisomers by mass spectrometry. We measured 2-HG levels and molecular markers of MRD (WT1 and NPM1) in serial samples of 36 patients with IDH1/2 mutations after induction therapy.
Results: In patients with AML with IDH1/2 mutations, 2-HG serum levels were significantly higher than in patients with IDH1/2 wild type (P < .001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 99%. The optimum diagnostic cutoff between IDH1/2 mutated and normal was 2 μmol/L (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 79%). Quantification of the D/L stereoisomers increased specificity (100%; 95% CI, 83% to 100%) compared with total 2-HG (P = .031). In patients with IDH2 R172 mutations, 2-HG levels were higher relative to those with other IDH1/2 mutations (P < .05). During follow-up, serum 2-HG levels showed strong positive correlation with WT1 and NPM1 (P < .001). After induction therapy, total 2-HG serum levels < 2 μmol/L were associated with better overall (P = .008) and disease-free survival (P = .005).
Conclusion: Serum 2-HG is a predictor of the presence of IDH1/2 mutations and outcome in these patients. Discrimination between D/L stereoisomers improved specificity.