The first two integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) approved for treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were raltegravir and elvitegravir. Both raltegravir and elvitegravir are now guideline-preferred agents as part of an antiretroviral regimen for treatment-naive patients. However, raltegravir is dosed twice/day. Elvitegravir is available in a single-tablet regimen and dosed once/day because it is administered with the pharmacokinetic booster cobicistat, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor that can lead to clinically significant drug-drug interactions. In addition, raltegravir and elvitegravir have a low genetic barrier to resistance and are associated with cross-resistance. Dolutegravir is a new-generation INSTI administered once/day without a pharmacokinetic booster and can be coformulated in a single-tablet regimen. Phase III studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of dolutegravir for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients. Compared with other INSTIs, dolutegravir has a higher genetic barrier to resistance. Dolutegravir was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2013 and joins raltegravir and elvitegravir as guideline-preferred agents for the management for HIV-infected treatment-naive patients.
Keywords: DTG; INSTI; S/GSK1349572; dolutegravir; elvitegravir; integrase inhibitor; integrase strand transfer inhibitor; raltegravir.
© 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.