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, 8 (10), e78733

March of the Titans: The Locomotor Capabilities of Sauropod Dinosaurs


March of the Titans: The Locomotor Capabilities of Sauropod Dinosaurs

William Irvin Sellers et al. PLoS One.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Figure 1
Figure 1. Argentinosaurus huinculensis reconstruction at Museo Municipal Carmen Funes, Plaza Huincul, Neuquén, Argentina.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Multiple orthographic views of the digitised skeleton created using the POVRAY ray-tracer (
The background pattern consists of 1
Figure 3
Figure 3. Orthographic views of the hulled segments created using the POVRAY ray-tracer (
A, side, and B, front view of the unscaled hull model. C, side, and D, front view of the scaled model with extra mass in the thigh and forearm segments.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Orthographic views of the limb bones, muscle paths, wrapping cylinders, joint axes and contact points used in the model.
The scale bar is 1-tracer (
Figure 5
Figure 5. Charts showing the distribution of muscle mass in three species of cursorial quadruped.
Data from Wareing et
Figure 6
Figure 6. Charts showing the frequency distributions of the (extension/fibre length) ratio for a variety of muscles and vertebrate species.
Figure 7
Figure 7. Diagram showing how the minimum ankle torque required to support an animal can be calculated.
Figure 8
Figure 8. Chart showing the performance characteristics of asynchronous versus synchronous genetic algorithm implementations on varying numbers of CPU cores.
Figure 9
Figure 9. Charts showing the minimum extensor muscle mass required (1,2,3) and the muscle mass available (4) around individual joints for the different joint range of motion cases.
1, best estimate range of motion; 2, elephant functional range of motion; 3, restricted ankle range of motion; 4, muscle mass in model.
Figure 10
Figure 10. Animation frames generated by GaitSym ( for the 2 second gait cycle time.
Figure 11
Figure 11. Charts showing the cost of locomotion and walking speeds for the best simulations generated with different gait cycle times.
Figure 12
Figure 12. Simulated trackways generated by spatially summing the impulse between the foot contacts and the substrate.

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