Waterpipe smoking among middle and high school Jordanian students: patterns and predictors

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013 Dec 12;10(12):7068-82. doi: 10.3390/ijerph10127068.


Despite the increase in attention to waterpipe tobacco smoking, the patterns and predictors of this method of tobacco use among Jordanian youth are not well known. The current study was conducted to assess the patterns and the predictors of waterpipe tobacco smoking among school aged students in one of Jordan's Central Governorates. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the patterns and predictors of waterpipe tobacco smoking among youth (grades 6, 8, 10 and 12). Using a multistage random sampling more than 1,000 students was selected. Data were collected using the Arabic Youth Tobacco Use Composite Measure (YTUCM). Waterpipe smoking was assessed for "past 12 months", "past month" and "past week". Students' ages ranged from 11 to 18 years, (mean age ± 14.7; SD ± 1.9 years). The percentage of girls who smoked waterpipe was greater for all frequencies of use than it was for boys. Age, gender, and belief that smoking makes more friends were predictors of smoking among study participants. This is the first known study to examine waterpipe smoking among youth aged 11 and 12. Our findings illustrate the need for public health campaigns to reach and educate youth, their families, teachers and school systems regarding the growing recognized health risks of waterpipe smoking.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Attitude to Health
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Jordan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Students / statistics & numerical data*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires