In the female genital tract, malignant mixed müllerian tumors (MMTs) are uncommon neoplasms of uncertain histogenesis. We have examined 11 MMTs by both electron microscopy (EM) and immunoperoxidase techniques (IPX). Eight were of endometrial, two were of ovarian, and one of tubal origins. The IPX analysis included monoclonal antibodies to keratin (k) and vimentin (v) and a polyclonal antibody to myoglobin. Carcinomatous elements were always keratin positive (K+) and were focally positive for vimentin in six tumors. Homologous stromal sarcoma cells were vimentin positive (V+) and in three tumors were focally K+. Ultrastructurally, the epithelial cells were not highly differentiated and the sarcomatous elements generally resembled normal proliferative-phase stromal cells. The epithelial and stromal elements were separated by a thin basal lamina that only rarely and focally had discontinuities. No transitional cellular forms were identified. A definite positive myoglobin reaction was seen in two of the four neoplasms in which rhabdomyoblasts were identified by light microscopy. Myofilaments were identified by electron microscope in three neoplasms.