How to perform parathyroid 4D CT: tips and traps for technique and interpretation

Radiology. 2014 Jan;270(1):15-24. doi: 10.1148/radiol.13122661.


Parathyroid four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) is an imaging technique for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas that involves multidetector CT image acquisition during two or more contrast enhancement phases. Four-dimensional CT offers an alternative or additional tool in the evaluation of primary hyperparathyroidism. The purpose of this article is to describe the 4D CT technique and provide a practical guide to the radiologist for imaging interpretation. The article will discuss the rationale for imaging, approach to interpretation, imaging findings, and pitfalls.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Contrast Media
  • Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography / methods*
  • Humans
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnostic imaging*
  • Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted


  • Contrast Media