Clinical management of progressive myopia

Eye (Lond). 2014 Feb;28(2):147-53. doi: 10.1038/eye.2013.259. Epub 2013 Dec 20.


Myopia has been increasing in prevalence throughout the world, reaching over 90% in some East Asian populations. There is increasing evidence that whereas genetics clearly have an important role, the type of visual environment to which one is exposed to likely influences the onset, progression, and cessation of myopia. Consequently, attempts to either modify the environment or to reduce the exposure of the eye to various environmental stimuli to eye growth through the use of various optical devices are well under way at research centers around the globe. The most promising of current treatments include low-percentage atropine, bifocal soft contact lenses, orthokeratology, and multifocal spectacles. These methods are discussed briefly and are then categorized in terms of their expected degree of myopia progression control. A clinical strategy is presented for selecting the most effective treatment for the appropriate type of patient at the optimal stage of refractive development to achieve the maximum control of myopia progression.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Atropine / therapeutic use*
  • Contact Lenses*
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Mydriatics / therapeutic use*
  • Myopia / diagnosis
  • Myopia / therapy*
  • Orthokeratologic Procedures*


  • Mydriatics
  • Atropine