Multiple myeloma relapse following autologous stem cell transplant presenting with diffuse pulmonary nodules

Ochsner J. 2013 Winter;13(4):553-7.


Background: Multiple myeloma is a common disease, accounting for about 10% of hematologic malignancies in the United States. For eligible patients, the treatment of choice includes induction therapy (usually involving newer biologic agents) followed by autologous stem cell transplant; however, this treatment is generally not considered curative, and relapses usually occur. However, extramedullary relapse is an uncommon presentation, and relapses that involve the lungs have only rarely been described.

Case report: We report the case of a patient who underwent an autologous stem cell transplant for multiple myeloma and subsequently relapsed with diffuse pulmonary nodules. She then had a rapid clinical and serologic response following initiation of salvage therapy.

Conclusion: This case is remarkable for both the radiographic appearance of the pulmonary involvement, as well as the rapid resolution of these findings after 2 cycles of treatment with bortezomib, dexamethasone, and lenalidomide.

Keywords: Multiple myeloma; multiple pulmonary nodules; plasmacytoma; recurrence; stem cell transplantation.

Publication types

  • Case Reports