Levels of 25 cytokines in the first seven days of life in newborn infants

BMC Res Notes. 2013 Dec 20;6:547. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-6-547.


Background: Novel methods for cytokine analysis allow for the simultaneous measurement of 25 cytokines in 50 μL serum or plasma. Data on values of most of these cytokines in non-infected newborn infants are lacking. We analyzed levels of 25 cytokines in the first week of life in non-infected preterm and term infants and related them to gestational age.

Findings: During the first week after birth, no trend over time was found in any of the cytokines, except for IL-1Ra and IL-6 where higher values were found in the first four hours. Between 24 and 72 hrs levels of IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-8, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, IFNγ, MIP-1a, MCP-1, TNFα were lower in infants born after 30-32 wks compared to infants ≥ 36 wks; levels of IL-6, IL-10, IP-10 were lower in preterm infants of both 30-32 and 33-36 weeks. No difference between groups for any of the levels was found for IL-1b, IL-2r, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IFNa, MIP-1b, GM-CSF, Eotaxin and RANTES.

Conclusions: Levels of 25 interleukines are stable in the first week of life in non-infected infants. Infants born after 30-32 wks showed lower levels of fourteen cytokines compared to infants born after more then 36 wks. This indicates a lower stimulation or activation of Th-1 cells, monocytes and dendritic cells in these infants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Dendritic Cells / cytology
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism
  • Female
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature / blood*
  • Infant, Premature / immunology
  • Male
  • Monocytes / cytology
  • Monocytes / immunology
  • Monocytes / metabolism
  • Th1 Cells / cytology
  • Th1 Cells / immunology
  • Th1 Cells / metabolism


  • Cytokines