Effects of topical nasal steroids and diclofenac on the nasal mucosa during hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a double-blind experimental study

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014 Aug;271(8):2213-7. doi: 10.1007/s00405-013-2863-8. Epub 2013 Dec 22.


We aimed to evaluate nasal mucosal changes and efficiency of nasal steroids and diclofenac on nasal mucosa during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment. Forty adult Albino-Wistar rats were randomized into four groups. Group 1 (control group) (n = 10) not exposed to hyperbaric or enhanced oxygen concentrations; group 2 (HBO group) (n = 10) underwent only HBO treatment; group 3 (n = 10) received HBO and intranasal mometasone furoate (10 μl/day); group 4 (n = 10) treated with HBO and diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg/day ip). Specimens of nasal mucosa were collected after sacrificing and dissection of animals. The specimens were processed for light microscopic evaluation, and then evaluated histopathologically for fibroblastic proliferation and inflammation. Regarding the scores of inflammation, the level of inflammation in the control group was significantly less severe than the other groups (p < 0.05). Evaluation of the fibrosis scores showed that the scores of both groups 2 and 4 were significantly increased (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups 2, 3, and 4 as for fibrosis and inflammation (p > 0.05). Chronic HBO treatment induced mild inflammation of the nasal mucosa. These effects cannot be prevented adequately by administration of nasal steroids and diclofenac.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology
  • Diclofenac / pharmacology*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Fibrosis / etiology
  • Fibrosis / prevention & control
  • Hyperbaric Oxygenation* / adverse effects
  • Inflammation / etiology
  • Inflammation / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Mometasone Furoate
  • Nasal Mucosa / drug effects*
  • Nasal Mucosa / pathology*
  • Pregnadienediols / pharmacology*
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Pregnadienediols
  • Mometasone Furoate
  • Diclofenac