Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most clinically important viruses infecting young children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. Over the past decade, the most significant advance in the prevention of RSV disease has been the development of high-titered antibody products. Infection control is the only other strategy to prevent RSV disease. A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the fusion (F) protein palivizumab, (Synagis®, MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD), is given routinely on a monthly basis to premature infants and young children less than 24 months of age with underlying medical problems including prematurity, chronic lung disease, or cardiac disease to prevent RSV disease and hospitalization. Other products utilizing polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies or antibody fragments against the F protein have been developed and some already tested in patient populations. The only licensed antiviral treatment available today is ribavirin, a guanosine analogue generally administered as a small particle aerosol to immunocompromised patients with lower respiratory tract disease due to RSV. This drug has also been utilized in oral and intravenous forms, again mainly in immunocompromised patients. Promising new antiviral agents under development by multiple pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies include small molecule fusion inhibitors, attachment inhibitors, inhibitors of RNA synthesis, and small interfering RNA particles (siRNA).