Acute and chronic respiratory failure

Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;119:273-88. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-7020-4086-3.00019-9.


Respiratory failure (RF) can be attributed to a plethora of neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) and manifests clinically in a multitude of overt or more subtle ways. The basic principles of pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of neurologic diseases and of RF apply concomitantly to this subset of patients. Various entities should be approached according to the latest evidence-based recommendations. Treatment follows the natural disease progression, from minimal respiratory assistance to mechanical ventilation (MV). A comprehensive treatment plan has to be formulated that takes into consideration the patient's wishes.

Keywords: Respiratory failure; glossopharyngeal breathing; mechanical ventilation; noninvasive ventilation; secretions; sleep apnea; tracheostomy; weaning.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Nervous System Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Nervous System Diseases* / etiology
  • Nervous System Diseases* / therapy
  • Respiratory Insufficiency / complications*