Divergent socio-economic gradients in smoking by type of tobacco use in India

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014 Jan;18(1):122-4. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.13.0246.


We describe the relationship between socio-economic status and current bidi or cigarette smoking among Indian men aged ≥15 years. The prevalence of bidi smoking was 13.7% (95%CI 13.3-14.1) and that of cigarette smoking was 6.3% (95%CI 6.1-6.6). bidi smoking was concentrated among the socio-economically disadvantaged, while cigarette smoking was common among men with higher status occupations and greater levels of education and household wealth. This suggests that India has not transitioned to the later stages of the tobacco epidemic, and underscores the need for prevention and control strategies adapted to current patterns of consumption across socio-economic groups in India.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Educational Status
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Income
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupations / economics
  • Prevalence
  • Smoking / economics*
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Social Class
  • Socioeconomic Factors*
  • Tobacco Products / economics*
  • Young Adult