Bariatric surgery is a well-established approach to improve metabolic disease in morbidly obese patients with high cardiovascular risk. The post-operative normalization of lipid metabolism has a central role in the prevention of future cardiovascular events. The aim of the present study therefore was to characterize changes of plasma lipidomic patterns, consisting of 229 lipid species of 13 lipid classes, 3 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in morbidly obese patients with and without diabetes. RYGB resulted in a 15-32% decrease of body mass index, which was associated with a significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC, -28.3%; P=0.02), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, -26.8%; P=0.03) and triglycerides (TGs, -63.0%; P=0.05) measured by routine clinical chemistry. HDL-cholesterol remained unchanged. The effect of RYGB on the plasma lipidomic profile was characterized by significant decreases of 87 lipid species from triacylglycerides (TAGs), cholesterol esters (CholEs), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs), phosphatidylethanolamine ethers (PEOs), phosphatidylinositols (PIs) and ceramides (Cers). The total of plasma lipid components exhibited a substantial decline of 32.6% and 66 lipid species showed a decrease by over 50%. A direct correlation with HbA1C values could be demonstrated for 24 individual lipid species (10 TAG, three CholE, two LPC, one lysophosphatidylcholine ethers (LPCO) (LPC ether), one PC, two phosphatidylcholine ethers (PCO) and five Cer). Notably, two lipid species (TAG 58:5 and PEO 40:5) were inversely correlated with HbA1C. LPCO, as single whole lipid class, was directly related to HbA1C. These data indicate that RYGB-induced modulation of lipidomic profiles provides important information about post-operative metabolic adaptations and might substantially contribute to improvements of glycemic control. These striking changes in the human plasma lipidome may explain acute, weight independent and long-term effects of RYGB on the cardiovascular system, mental status and immune regulation.