Risk factors for acute kidney injury in severe rhabdomyolysis

PLoS One. 2013 Dec 18;8(12):e82992. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082992. eCollection 2013.


Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a life-threatening complication of severe rhabdomyolysis. This study was conducted to assess risk factors for AKI and to develop a risk score for early prediction.

Methods: Retrospective observational cohort study with a 9-year follow-up, carried out in an acute-care teaching-affiliated hospital. A total of 126 patients with severe rhabdomyolysis defined as serum creatine kinase (CK) > 5,000 IU/L fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine risk factors for AKI. Based on the values obtained for each variable, a risk score and prognostic probabilities were estimated to establish the risk for developing AKI.

Results: The incidence of AKI was 58%. Death during hospitalization was significantly higher among patients with AKI, compared to patients without AKI (19.2% vs 3.6%, p = 0.008). The following variables were independently associated with AKI: peak CK (odds ratio [OR] 4.9, 95%CI 1.4-16.8), hypoalbuminemia (< 33 mg/dL, [OR 5.1, 95%CI 1.4-17-7]), metabolic acidosis (OR 5.3, 95%CI 1.4-20.3), and decreased prothrombin time (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.3-14.5). A risk score for AKI was calculated for each patient, with an OR of 1.72 (95%CI 1.45-2.04). The discrimination value of the predictive model was established by means of a ROC curve, with the area under the curve of 0.871 (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The identification of independent factors associated with AKI and a risk score for early prediction of this complication in patients with severe rhabdomyolysis may be useful in clinical practice, particularly to implement early preventive measures.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / complications*
  • Clinical Laboratory Techniques
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Rhabdomyolysis / complications*
  • Rhabdomyolysis / epidemiology*
  • Rhabdomyolysis / mortality
  • Risk Factors

Grant support

The authors have no support or funding to report.