This study tested the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation confers beneficial effects on growing pigs fed a mold-contaminated diet. The measured variables included: (1) the average daily weight gain and feed:gain ratio; (2) activities of total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, diamine oxidase, as well as amino acid and D-lactate concentrations in serum; (3) intestinal morphology; (4) expression of the genes for SLC7A7 (amino acid transporter light chain, y(+L) system, family 7, member 7), SLC7A1 (cationic amino acid transporter, y(+) system, family 7, member 1), SLC1A1 (neuronal/epithelial high affinity glutamate transporter, system XAG, member 1), SLC5A1 (sodium/glucose cotransporter, family 5, member 1) in the ileum and jejunum. Mycotoxins in feedstuffs resulted in an enlarged small intestine mass, oxidative injury in tissues, and reduced growth performance in pigs. Dietary arginine supplementation enhanced (P < 0.05) expression of jejunal SLC7A7 and ileal SLC7A1, in comparison with the control and mycotoxin groups. In addition, supplementing 1% L-arginine to the mycotoxin-contaminated feed had the following beneficial effects (P < 0.05): (1) alleviating the imbalance of the antioxidant system in the body; (2) ameliorating intestinal abnormalities; and (3) attenuating whole-body growth depression, compared with the mycotoxin group without arginine treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with L-arginine exerts a protective role in pigs fed mold-contaminated foods. The findings may have important nutritional implications for humans and other mammals.