Role of peripheral immune response in microglia activation and regulation of brain chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine responses induced during VSV encephalitis

J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Feb 15;267(1-2):50-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2013.12.002. Epub 2013 Dec 11.


We report herein that neuroinvasion by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) activates microglia and induces a peripheral dendritic cell (DC)-dependent inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS). VSV neuroinvasion rapidly induces multiple brain chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs that display bimodal kinetics. Peripheral DC ablation or T cell depletion suppresses the second wave of this response demonstrating that infiltrating T cells are primarily responsible for the bimodal characteristics of this response. The robust infiltrate associated with VSV encephalitis likely depends on sustained production of brain CCL19 and CCR7 expression on infiltrating inflammatory cells.

Keywords: Chemokine; Dendritic cell; Encephalitis; Microglia; T cell; Vesicular stomatitis virus.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / immunology
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Brain / virology
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Diphtheria Toxin / pharmacology
  • Diphtheria Toxin / therapeutic use
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Encephalitis, Arbovirus / drug therapy
  • Encephalitis, Arbovirus / metabolism
  • Encephalitis, Arbovirus / pathology*
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Leukemic Infiltration / drug therapy
  • Leukocytes / drug effects
  • Leukocytes / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Microglia / immunology
  • Microglia / physiology*
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Vesiculovirus / immunology
  • Vesiculovirus / pathogenicity*


  • Cytokines
  • Diphtheria Toxin
  • Hbegf protein, mouse
  • Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger