Long-term outcomes in African American kidney transplant recipients under contemporary immunosuppression: a four-yr analysis of the Mycophenolic acid Observational REnal transplant (MORE) study

Clin Transplant. 2014 Feb;28(2):184-91. doi: 10.1111/ctr.12294. Epub 2013 Dec 24.


Mycophenolic acid Observational REnal transplant (MORE) was a prospective, observational study of de novo kidney transplant patients receiving mycophenolic acid (MPA). Four-yr data on 904 patients receiving tacrolimus and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) were analyzed to evaluate immunosuppression and graft outcomes in African American (AA, n = 218) vs. non-AA (n = 686) patients. Mean tacrolimus dose was higher in AA vs. non-AA patients but mean tacrolimus trough concentration was similar. Use of the recommended MPA dose in AA patients decreased from 78.9% at baseline to 33.1% at year 3. More AA patients received the recommended MPA dose with EC-MPS than MMF at month 6 (56.2% vs. 35.7%, p = 0.016) and month 36 (46.6% vs. 16.7%, p = 0.029), with no safety penalty. Significantly, more AA patients received corticosteroids than non-AA patients. Biopsy-proven acute rejection was higher in AA vs. non-AA patients (18.9% vs. 10.7%, p = 0.003), as was graft loss (10.9% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.003); differences were confirmed by Cox regression analysis. Patient survival was similar. Estimated GFR was comparable in AA vs. non-AA patients. Kidney allograft survival remains lower for AA vs. non-AA recipients even under the current standard of care.

Keywords: African American; EC-MPS; MMF - Cellcept; Myfortic; enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium; kidney transplantation; mycophenolate mofetil; outcomes; race.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Graft Rejection / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppression
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / ethnology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery*
  • Kidney Function Tests
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Time Factors


  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Mycophenolic Acid