Long-term outcome of patients with gastric varices treated by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration

J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 May;29(5):1035-42. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12508.


Background and aim: To assess the short- and long-term outcome of patients with gastric varices (GV) after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) by comparing bleeding cases with prophylactic cases.

Methods: Consecutive 100 patients with GV treated by B-RTO were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We compared the technical success, complications, and survival rates between bleeding and prophylactic cases.

Results: Of 100 patients, 61 patients were bleeding cases and 39 patients were prophylactic cases. Technical success was achieved in 95% of bleeding case and in 100% of prophylactic case, with no significant difference between these groups (overall technical success rate, 97%). The survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 50% and 22% in bleeding case, and 49% and 36% in prophylactic case, respectively. There was also no significant difference (P = 0.420). By multivariate analysis, survival rates correlated significantly with liver function (hazard ratio 2.371, 95% CI 1.457-3.860, P = 0.001) and hepatocellular carcinoma development (HR 4.782, 95% CI 2.331-9.810, P < 0.001). The aggravating rates of esophageal varices (EV) were 21%, 50%, and 54% at 12, 60, and 120 months after B-RTO. By multivariate analysis, aggravating rates significantly correlated with EV existing before B-RTO (HR 18.114, 95% CI 2.463-133.219, P = 0.004).

Conclusion: B-RTO for GV could provide the high rate of complete obliteration and favorable long-term prognosis even in bleeding cases as well as prophylactic cases. Management of EV after B-RTO, especially in coexisting case of GV and EV, would be warranted.

Keywords: B-RTO; gastric varices; portal hypertension; prognosis esophageal varices.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Balloon Occlusion / adverse effects
  • Balloon Occlusion / methods*
  • Balloon Occlusion / mortality
  • Cohort Studies
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / mortality
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome