Atrial fibrillation (AF) confers a raised risk of stroke and death, and this risk of adverse events is increased by the coexistence of other cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology of AF is complex, involving the role of inflammation, structural remodelling with apoptosis, inflammation or fibrosis. These changes confer a prothrombotic or hypercoagulable state in this arrhythmia. Despite being easy to use for decision-making concerning oral anticoagulant therapy in AF, clinical risk scores used for stratification have shown modest capability in predicting thromboembolic events, and biomarkers may improve our identification of 'high risk' patients. Biomarkers, whether measured in the peripheral blood, urine or imaging-based may improve our knowledge of the pathophysiology of AF. Importantly these biomarkers could help in the assessment of AF prognosis. The aim of this review was to summarise the published data about biomarkers studied in AF, with focus on data from randomised prospective clinical trials and large community-based cohorts. We will also review the application of these biomarkers to prognosis on the main schemes used to help stratify risk in AF.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.