Context: The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines panel on Muscle-invasive and Metastatic bladder cancer (BCa) updates its guidelines yearly. This updated summary provides a synthesis of the 2013 guidelines document, with emphasis on the latest developments.
Objective: To provide graded recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with muscle-invasive BCa (MIBC), linked to a level of evidence.
Evidence acquisition: For each section of the guidelines, comprehensive literature searches covering the past 10 yr in several databases were conducted, scanned, reviewed, and discussed both within the panel and with external experts. The final results are reflected in the recommendations provided.
Evidence synthesis: Smoking and work-related carcinogens remain the most important risk factors for BCa. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging can be used for staging, although CT is preferred for pulmonary evaluation. Open radical cystectomy with an extended lymph node dissection (LND) remains the treatment of choice for treatment failures in non-MIBC and T2-T4aN0M0 BCa. For well-informed, well-selected, and compliant patients, however, multimodality treatment could be offered as an alternative, especially if cystectomy is not an option. Comorbidity, not age, should be used when deciding on radical cystectomy. Patients should be encouraged to actively participate in the decision-making process, and a continent urinary diversion should be offered to all patients unless there are specific contraindications. For fit patients, cisplatinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy should always be discussed, since it improves overall survival. For patients with metastatic disease, cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy is recommended. For unfit patients, carboplatin combination chemotherapy or single agents can be used.
Conclusions: This 2013 EAU Muscle-invasive and Metastatic BCa guidelines updated summary aims to increase the quality of care and outcome for patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic BCa.
Patient summary: In this paper we update the EAU guidelines on Muscle-invasive and Metastatic bladder cancer. We recommend that chemotherapy be administered before radical treatment and that bladder removal be the standard of care for disease confined to the bladder.
Keywords: Bladder cancer; Bladder sparing treatments; Chemotherapy; Cisplatin-based; Comorbidities; Cystectomy; EAU guidelines; Infiltrative; Invasive; Quality of life.
Copyright © 2013 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.