Epigenetic inactivation of miR-9 family microRNAs in chronic lymphocytic leukemia--implications on constitutive activation of NFκB pathway

Mol Cancer. 2013 Dec 27;12:173. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-12-173.

Abstract

Background: The miR-9 family microRNAs have been identified as a tumor suppressor miRNA in cancers. We postulated that miR-9-1, miR-9-2 and miR-9-3 might be inactivated by DNA hypermethylation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

Methods: Methylation of miR-9-1, miR-9-2 and miR-9-3 was studied in eight normal controls including normal bone marrow, buffy coat, and CD19-sorted peripheral blood B-cells from healthy individuals, seven CLL cell lines, and seventy-eight diagnostic CLL samples by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction.

Results: The promoters of miR-9-3 and miR-9-1 were both unmethylated in normal controls, but methylated in five (71.4%) and one of seven CLL cell lines respectively. However, miR-9-2 promoter was methylated in normal controls including CD19 + ve B-cells, hence suggestive of a tissue-specific but not tumor-specific methylation, and thus not further studied. Different MSP statuses of miR-9-3, including complete methylation, partial methylation, and complete unmethylation, were verified by quantitative bisulfite methylation analysis. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment resulted in miR-9-3 promoter demethylation and re-expression of pri-miR-9-3 in I83-E95 and WAC3CD5+ cells, which were homozygously methylated for miR-9-3. Moreover, overexpression of miR-9 led to suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis together with downregulation of NFκB1 in I83-E95 cells, supporting a tumor suppressor role of miR-9-3 in CLL. In primary CLL samples, miR-9-3 was detected in 17% and miR-9-1 methylation in none of the patients at diagnosis. Moreover, miR-9-3 methylation was associated with advanced Rai stage (≥ stage 2) (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Of the miR-9 family, miR-9-3 is a tumor suppressor miRNA relatively frequently methylated, and hence silenced in CLL; whereas miR-9-1 methylation is rare in CLL. The role of miR-9-3 methylation in the constitutive activation of NFκB signaling pathway in CLL warrants further study.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • DNA Methylation
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / genetics*
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / metabolism
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / pathology
  • Male
  • MicroRNAs / genetics*
  • MicroRNAs / metabolism
  • Middle Aged
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Signal Transduction*

Substances

  • MIRN92 microRNA, human
  • MicroRNAs
  • NF-kappa B