Characterization of the chemokine response of RAW264.7 cells to infection by murine norovirus

Virus Res. 2014 Mar 6;181:27-34. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2013.12.025. Epub 2013 Dec 24.


Noroviruses are an emerging threat to public health, causing large health and economic costs, including at least 200,000 deaths annually. The inability to replicate in cell culture or small animal models has limited the understanding of the interaction between human noroviruses and their hosts. However, an alternative strategy to gain insights into norovirus pathogenesis is to study murine norovirus (MNV-1) that replicates in cultured macrophages. While the innate immune response is central to the resolution of norovirus disease, the adaptive immune response is required for viral clearance. The specific responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to infection drive the adaptive immune response, with chemokines playing an important role. In this study, we have conducted microarray analysis of RAW264.7 macrophages infected with MNV-1 and examined the changes in chemokine transcriptional expression during infection. While the majority of chemokines showed no change, there was specific up-regulation in chemokines reflective of a bias toward a Th1 response, specifically CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL2, CXCL10 and CXCL11. These changes in gene expression were reflected in protein levels as determined by ELISA assay. This virus-induced chemokine response will affect the resolution of infection and may limit the humoral response to norovirus infection.

Keywords: Calicivirus; Chemokines; Immunity; Norovirus.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemokines / genetics
  • Chemokines / metabolism*
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Interferons / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Macrophages / virology
  • Mice
  • Norovirus / physiology*
  • Up-Regulation
  • Virus Replication


  • Chemokines
  • Interferons