Micropenis: etiology, diagnosis and treatment approaches

J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2013;5(4):217-23. doi: 10.4274/Jcrpe.1135.


Micropenis is a medical diagnosis based on correct measurement of length. If stretched penile length is below the value corresponding to - 2.5 standard deviation of the mean in a patient with normal internal and external male genitalia, a diagnosis of micropenis is considered. Micropenis can be caused by a variety of factors including structural or hormonal defects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It can also be a component of a number of congenital syndromes. For the etiological evaluation, endocrinologic tests are important. This article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and management of micropenis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Genital Diseases, Male / diagnosis*
  • Genital Diseases, Male / etiology
  • Genital Diseases, Male / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Organ Size
  • Penis / abnormalities*
  • Penis / pathology
  • Risk Factors