Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antifungal agents: guidelines from the British Society for Medical Mycology

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 May;69(5):1162-76. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt508. Epub 2013 Dec 29.


The burden of human disease related to medically important fungal pathogens is substantial. An improved understanding of antifungal pharmacology and antifungal pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics has resulted in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) becoming a valuable adjunct to the routine administration of some antifungal agents. TDM may increase the probability of a successful outcome, prevent drug-related toxicity and potentially prevent the emergence of antifungal drug resistance. Much of the evidence that supports TDM is circumstantial. This document reviews the available literature and provides a series of recommendations for TDM of antifungal agents.

Keywords: fungal diseases; fungal pathogens; triazoles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Monitoring / methods*
  • Drug Monitoring / standards*
  • Humans
  • Mycoses / drug therapy*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antifungal Agents