The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is an essential protein in eukaryotic organisms and is highly conserved throughout all kingdoms of life. It serves as a platform for the folding and maturation of many client proteins including protein kinases and steroid hormone receptors. To fulfill this task Hsp90 performs conformational changes driven by the hydrolysis of ATP. Further, it can resort to a broad set of co-chaperones, which fit the Hsp90 machinery to the needs of specific client proteins. During the last years the number of identified co-chaperones has been consistently rising, implying that the client spectrum of Hsp90 may be much more diverse and larger than currently known. Many cofactors contain a TPR-domain for interactions at the C-terminus of Hsp90 and in many cases their functions and client sets remain to be uncovered. Hsp90 is also a putative target to interfere with cancerous and infectious diseases. Thus the knowledge on more of its cellular functions would provide also more therapeutic options for the future. In this review we compile the current knowledge on the Hsp90 ATPase mechanism, cofactor regulation and prospects of Hsp90 inhibition.
Keywords: ATPase cyle; Hsp90; SHR; chaperone; clients; kinase.