A monoclonal antibody against human liver uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGTase) was developed. Enzyme inhibition studies with this monoclonal antibody showed inhibition of human liver UDPGTase activity with bilirubin, 4-methylumbelliferone, and 4-nitrophenol as substrates. Testosterone, estrone, and phenolphthalein UDPGTase activity was not inhibited. The monoclonal antibody probably recognizes the uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronic acid binding site at 4-nitrophenol UDPGTase. Proteins with a molecular mass of 54,000 daltons were immunopurified from solubilized human liver using the monoclonal antibody as ligand coupled to Sepharose 4B beads. The distribution of UDPGTase isoforms in various human tissues was studied by immunofluorescence. The enzyme could be detected in liver, kidney, stomach, small intestine, colon, and skin. In liver, only hepatocytes contain UDPGTase. In kidney, the enzyme was localized exclusively in proximal tubuli and in stomach in epithelial mucous cells. In small intestinal epithelium, maximal fluorescence was seen at the villous tip. In colon, all lining epithelial cells were stained. In colon polyps, staining for UDPGTase was clearly decreased, and in colon carcinoma it was undetectable. In skin, the stratum corneum was intensely stained, whereas the stratum basale showed no fluorescence.