The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of taurine supplementation on muscle performance, oxidative stress, and inflammation response after eccentric exercise (EE) in males. Twenty-one participants (mean age, 21 ± 6 years; weight, 78.2 ± 5 kg; height, 176 ± 7 cm) were selected and randomly divided into two groups: placebo (n = 10) and taurine (n = 11). Fourteen days after starting supplementation, subjects performed EE (3 sets until exhaustion, with EE of the elbow flexors on the Scott bench, 80% 1 repetition maximum (RM)). Blood samples were collected and muscle performance was measured on days 1, 14, 16, 18, and 21 after starting the supplements. Then, performance, muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers were analyzed. The taurine supplementation resulted in increased strength levels and thiol total content and decreased muscle soreness, lactate dehydrogenase level, creatine kinase activity, and oxidative damage (xylenol and protein carbonyl). Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione peroxidase) and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-10 (IL-10)) were not altered during the recovery period compared with the placebo group. The results suggest that taurine supplementation represents an important factor in improving performance and decreasing muscle damage and oxidative stress but does not decrease the inflammatory response after EE.