Background: Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) have a protective effect in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) by suppressing progression, possibly by controlling hypertension. One marker of progression in such patients is the degree of proteinuria.
Objective: We aimed to retrospectively examine the protective effect of ARBs (olmesartan, losartan, candesartan, and valsartan) on CKD patients without a history of diabetic nephropathy.
Methods: Data were retrieved from medical records of patients with a diagnosis of CKD (serum creatinine [Cre] <3.0 mg/dL [265.2 μmol/L] and urinary protein of 0.3-3.5 g/g Cre) who were treated with ARBs and those with diabetic nephropathy were excluded. Blood pressure, serum Cre, urinary protein, urinary Cre, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were measured before the research began and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after the ARB treatment was started.
Results: Forty-four patients completed the research protocol. Of these, 10 took olmesartan, 13 took losartan, 9 took candesartan, 9 took valsartan, and 3 took telmisartan. Systolic blood pressure was decreased in all cases. The extent of this decrease 1 month after starting ARB treatment was greater for olmesartan than for candesartan (P < 0.05), and after 2 years, it was greater than for losartan (P < 0.05). Diastolic blood pressure decreased in all patients; this decrease was significantly greater with olmesartan 1 month after treatment started than with candesartan (P < 0.05). Olmesartan significantly decreased daily urinary protein compared with that with the other ARBs during follow-up. This decrease 1 month after starting ARB treatment was greater for olmesartan than losartan, valsartan, and candesartan (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, and P < 0.05, respectively), and after 2 years, this effect was still significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01, respectively).
Conclusions: Olmesartan is more effective in reducing urinary protein than other ARBs, suggesting that the renal protective effects of olmesartan may be better than those of other ARBs.
Keywords: angiotensin II receptor antagonist; nondiabetic chronic kidney disease; olmesartan; proteinuria.