Rice, bread, noodle and cereal intake and colorectal cancer in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study (JPHC Study)

Br J Cancer. 2014 Mar 4;110(5):1316-21. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2013.799. Epub 2014 Jan 2.


Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rate increased rapidly in Japan between the 1950s and 1990s. We examined the association between rice intake and CRC risk in comparison with bread, noodles and cereal among Japanese adults enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study.

Methods: A total of 73,501 Japanese men and women were followed-up from 1995 to 1999 until the end of 2008 for an average of 11 years. During 801,937 person-years of follow-up, we identified 1276 incident cases of CRC. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of CRC for rice, noodle, bread and cereal intake were calculated by Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: Overall, no significant association was observed for the highest quartile of rice intake compared with the lowest and the risk of CRC and its subsites in men (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.56-1.07) and women (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.71-1.68). However, a non-significant inverse trend was observed between rice intake and rectal cancer in men. No clear patterns of association were observed in bread, noodle and cereal intake.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the consumption of rice does not have a substantial impact on the risk of CRC in the Japanese population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bread
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology
  • Diet / statistics & numerical data*
  • Eating
  • Edible Grain
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oryza
  • Prospective Studies
  • Public Health
  • Risk Factors