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. 2013 Dec 31;14(1):492-509.
doi: 10.3390/s140100492.

Application of InSAR and GIS Techniques to Ground Subsidence Assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan

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Free PMC article

Application of InSAR and GIS Techniques to Ground Subsidence Assessment in the Nobi Plain, Central Japan

Minxue Zheng et al. Sensors (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Spatial variation and temporal changes in ground subsidence over the Nobi Plain, Central Japan, are assessed using GIS techniques and ground level measurements data taken over this area since the 1970s. Notwithstanding the general slowing trend observed in ground subsidence over the plains, we have detected ground rise at some locations, more likely due to the ground expansion because of recovering groundwater levels and the tilting of the Nobi land mass. The problem of non-availability of upper-air meteorological information, especially the 3-dimensional water vapor distribution, during the JERS-1 observational period (1992-1998) was solved by applying the AWC (analog weather charts) method onto the high-precision GPV-MSM (Grid Point Value of Meso-Scale Model) water-vapor data to find the latter's matching meteorological data. From the selected JERS-1 interferometry pair and the matching GPV-MSM meteorological data, the atmospheric path delay generated by water vapor inhomogeneity was then quantitatively evaluated. A highly uniform spatial distribution of the atmospheric delay, with a maximum deviation of approximately 38 mm in its horizontal distribution was found over the Plain. This confirms the effectiveness of using GPV-MSM data for SAR differential interferometric analysis, and sheds thus some new light on the possibility of improving InSAR analysis results for land subsidence applications.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Distribution of leveling points (pink dots) over the Nobi Plain, around Nagoya. The solid line denotes the area of study in this work. Altitude (in m) is shown by the legend code.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Observed ground level (in mm) changes over the Nobi Plain, at (a) Kuwana and (b) Kanayama. Discontinuities in the observational points denote missing data.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Variation in ground elevation (in m) using leveling measurements data. (a) 1975–1979 period. (b) 1980–1984 period. (c) 1985–1989 period. (d) 1990–1993 period. (e) 1994–1998 period.
Figure 4.
Figure 4.
Variation in ground elevation by land use.
Figure 5.
Figure 5.
Weather chart. (a) 6 May 1998. (b) 19 June 1998. (c) 27 May 2004: the date with weather conditions most analogous to those of 6 May1998. (d) 12 July 2005: the date with weather conditions most analogous to those of 19 June 1998. Wind speed is expressed in knots (KT) and wind direction by thick open arrows, while values of the pressure at the center of the High (H) or Low (L) cores marked by a “×” are given in millibars (mb).
Figure 6.
Figure 6.
Ground subsidence analysis results. (a) Land surface deformation map calculated from the differential interferometry of the JERS-1 SAR observation pair (6 May and 19 June 1998) over the Nobi Plain. (b) Land surface deformation due to the atmospheric delay induced by the horizontal distribution of atmospheric water vapor. (c) Same as in (b), but for the atmospheric delay induced by topography (vertical distribution of water vapor). (d) Same as in (b), but for the atmospheric delay due to the combined horizontal and vertical effects of water vapor. (e) Corrected land deformation by considering the atmospheric delay induced by the horizontal and vertical distribution of water vapor.
Figure 7.
Figure 7.
Variation in ground elevation using 1998 leveling measurements data.

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References

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