Morphologic characteristics, location, and associated complications of maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth as evaluated using cone beam computed tomography

Eur J Orthod. 2014 Dec;36(6):708-18. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjt101. Epub 2014 Jan 2.


Objectives: To evaluate the location and morphologic characteristics of supernumerary teeth and to assess the frequency and extent of root resorption of adjacent teeth using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Materials and methods: CBCT scans of 82 patients with supernumerary teeth in the maxilla and mandible were evaluated by two orthodontists independently. Data regarding the type, shape, and three-dimensional (3D) location of the supernumeraries including the frequency and extent of root resorption of adjacent teeth were recorded and evaluated for possible associations.

Results: The study comprised a total of 101 supernumerary teeth. Most of the patients (80.5 per cent) exhibited one single supernumerary tooth, while 15.8 per cent had two and 3.7 per cent had three supernumeraries. Males were affected more than females with a ratio of 1.65:1. Mesiodentes were the most frequently diagnosed type of supernumerary teeth (48.52 per cent), followed by supernumerary premolars (23.76 per cent) and lateral incisors (18.81 per cent). Supernumeraries were most commonly conical in shape (42.6 per cent) with a normal or inclined vertical position (61.4 per cent). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was detected for 22.8 per cent of the supernumerary teeth, most frequently for supernumerary premolars. There was a significant association between root resorption of adjacent teeth and type and shape of tooth. Interrater agreement for the measurements performed showed kappa values ranging from 0.55 to 1 with a kappa value of 1 for type and shape of the supernumerary teeth.

Conclusions: CBCT provides 3D information about location and shape of supernumerary teeth as well as prevalence and degree of root resorption of neighbouring teeth with moderate to high interrater correlation.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bicuspid / diagnostic imaging
  • Bicuspid / pathology
  • Child
  • Cone-Beam Computed Tomography / methods
  • Cuspid / diagnostic imaging
  • Cuspid / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mandible / diagnostic imaging
  • Mandible / pathology
  • Maxilla / diagnostic imaging
  • Maxilla / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Radiography, Dental / methods
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Root Resorption / diagnostic imaging
  • Root Resorption / etiology
  • Tooth, Supernumerary / complications
  • Tooth, Supernumerary / diagnostic imaging
  • Tooth, Supernumerary / pathology*
  • Young Adult