Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide powerful resources for application in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical development. In the past decade, various methods have been developed for large-scale hPSC culture that rely on combined use of multiple growth components, including media containing various growth factors, extracellular matrices, 3D environmental cues, and modes of multicellular association. In this Protocol Review, we dissect these growth components by comparing cell culture methods and identifying the benefits and pitfalls associated with each one. We further provide criteria, considerations, and suggestions to achieve optimal cell growth for hPSC expansion, differentiation, and use in future therapeutic applications.
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