Extensive pure ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: identification of predictors of associated infiltrating carcinoma and lymph node metastasis before immediate reconstructive surgery

Breast. 2014 Apr;23(2):97-103. doi: 10.1016/j.breast.2013.12.002. Epub 2013 Dec 31.


Aim: To identify predictors for infiltrating carcinoma and lymph node involvement, before immediate breast reconstructive surgery, in patients with an initial diagnosis of extensive pure ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast (DCIS).

Patients and methods: Between January 2000 and December 2009, 241 patients with pure extensive DCIS in preoperative biopsy had underwent mastectomy. Axillary staging (sentinel node and/or axillary dissection) was performed in 92% (n = 221) of patients. Patients with micro-invasive lesions at initial diagnosis, recurrence or contralateral breast cancer were excluded.

Results: Respectively 14% and 21% of patients had a final diagnosis of micro-invasive carcinoma (MIC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Univariate analysis showed that the following variables at diagnosis were significantly correlated with the presence of either MIC or IDC in the mastectomy specimen: palpable tumor (p = 0.002), high grade DCIS (p = 0.002) and detection of an opacity by mammography (p = 0.019). Axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement was reported in 9% of patients. Univariate analysis suggested that a body mass index higher than 25 (p = 0.007), a palpable tumor (p = 0.012) and the detection of an opacity by mammography (p = 0.044) were associated with an increased rate of ALN involvement.

Conclusion: Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction (IBRS) has become increasingly popular, especially for patients with extended DCIS of the breast. This study confirmed that extended DCIS is associated with a substantial risk of finding MIC or IDC on the surgical specimen but also ALN involvement. Adjuvant systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy could be indicated for some of these patients after the surgery. Patients should be informed of the rate of 1) complications associated to IBRS that will potentially delay the introduction of systemic or local therapy 2) complications associated to radiotherapy after IBRS.

Keywords: Axillary lymph node metastasis; Breast cancer; Ductal carcinoma in situ; Invasive cancer; Predictors.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Breast Neoplasms / surgery
  • Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / secondary*
  • Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology*
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Mammaplasty / methods
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors