Six genes encoding the bifidobacterial Hanks-type (eukaryote-like) serine/threonine protein kinases (STPK) were identified and classified. The genome of each bifidobacterial strain contains four conserved genes and one species-specific gene. Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum possess the unique gene found only in these species. The STPK genes of Russian industrial probiotic strain B. longum B379M were cloned and sequenced. The expression of these genes in Escherichia coli and bifidobacteria was observed. Autophosphorylation of the conserved STPK Pkb5 and species-specific STPK Pkb2 was demonstrated. This is the first report on Hanks-type STPK in bifidobacteria.