Quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a photoluminescence (PL) material with unique properties. The recent demonstration of its PL, controlled by the intercalation of positive ions, can lead to many opportunities for employing this quasi-2D material in ion-related biological applications. Here, we present two representative models of biological systems that incorporate the ion-controlled PL of quasi-2D MoS2 nanoflakes. The ion exchange behaviors of these two models are investigated to reveal enzymatic activities and cell viabilities. While the ion intercalation of MoS2 in enzymatic activities is enabled via an external applied voltage, the intercalation of ions in cell viability investigations occurs in the presence of the intrinsic cell membrane potential.