Swine monoclonal antibodies of high affinity and specificity to carcinoembryonic antigen

J Natl Cancer Inst. 1987 Aug;79(2):337-42.


To avoid the exclusive use of rodent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in patients for the detection of tumors by immunoscintigraphy and for radioimmunotherapy, swine MAbs were produced that are directed against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Spleen cells from 2 pigs immunized with purified colon carcinoma CEA were fused with a nonsecreting mouse myeloma cell line by conventional methods, except that a particularly long immunization protocol and large amounts of spleen and myeloma cells were used. Of 1,200 growing hybrids tested, 20 were found initially to produce antibodies binding to radiolabeled CEA. Seven stable clones producing anti-CEA MAbs for more than 6 months were derived from these hybrids by repeated subcloning. The pig origin of the seven MAbs was demonstrated in a solid-phase CEA enzyme immunoassay where anti-pig immunoglobin (Ig) antibodies coupled to peroxidase gave a positive reaction while anti-mouse Ig antibodies were entirely negative. All swine MAbs were of the IgG isotype. Three anti-CEA MAbs showed no cross-reactivity with granulocytes, while four others gave various degrees of reactivity with different granulocyte glycoproteins. Competitive binding to CEA performed for two purified swine MAbs showed that they recognized two different epitopes. The affinity constants measured for these two MAbs by Scatchard plot on purified CEA were high (1.2 X 10(9) and 1.2 X 10(10) liter/mol). One of the MAbs was tested in vivo for tumor localization by injection, after radiolabeling, in nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma xenograft. High ratios of tumor to normal tissue were obtained with mean values of 10.5 for intact MAbs and of 26.8 for F(ab')2 fragments of the porcine MAb. The results showed that heterofusion with this particular protocol can be used to produce swine MAbs of high affinity and specificity for a well-defined tumor marker. These reagents may have an important clinical utility, particularly in patients who became sensitized to mouse immunoglobulins.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology*
  • Antibody Affinity
  • Antibody Formation*
  • Antibody Specificity
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen / immunology*
  • Colonic Neoplasms / immunology
  • Epitopes / immunology
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Swine / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen
  • Epitopes