Kidney dysfunction and related cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014 Mar;29(3):657-62. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gft506. Epub 2014 Jan 6.


Background: Kidney dysfunction is a strong predictor of end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular (CV) events. The main goal was to study the clinical correlates of diabetic kidney disease in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) attending 236 Diabetes Clinics in Italy.

Methods: Clinical data of 120 903 patients were extracted from electronic medical records by means of an ad hoc-developed software. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increased urinary albumin excretion were considered. Factors associated with the presence of albuminuria only, GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) only or both conditions were evaluated through multivariate analysis.

Results: Mean age of the patients was 66.6 ± 11.0 years, 58.1% were male and mean duration of diabetes was 11.1 ± 9.4 years. The frequency of albuminuria, low GFR and both albuminuria and low GFR was 36.0, 23.5 and 12.2%, respectively. Glycaemic control was related to albuminuria more than to low GFR, while systolic and pulse pressure showed a trend towards higher values in patients with normal kidney function compared with those with both albuminuria and low GFR. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that age and duration of disease influenced both features of kidney dysfunction. Male gender was associated with an increased risk of albuminuria. Higher systolic blood pressure levels were associated with albuminuria, with a 4% increased risk of simultaneously having albuminuria and low GFR for each 5 mmHg increase.

Conclusions: In this large cohort of patients with T2DM, reduced GFR and increased albuminuria showed, at least in part, different clinical correlates. A worse CV risk profile is associated with albuminuria more than with isolated low GFR.

Keywords: albuminuria; epidemiology; type 2 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology
  • Albuminuria / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / etiology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors