Interfacial bonding characteristics between graphene and dielectric substrates

Nanotechnology. 2014 Jan 31;25(4):045707. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/25/4/045707.


Achieving strong adhesion between graphene and SiO(x)/Si substrates is crucial to make reliable graphene based electronics and electro-optic devices. We report the enhanced adhesion energy by vacuum annealing and the quantification of graphene-SiO(x)/Si substrate adhesion energy by using the nano-scratch technique coupled with Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We found that the adhesion energy of as-transferred graphene on SiO(x)/Si substrates is ~2.978 J m(-2). By applying different annealing protocols of rapid thermal annealing and vacuum annealing, the adhesion energy of graphene-SiO(x)/Si is increased to 10.09 and 20.64 J m(-2), respectively. The increase in adhesion energy is due to the formation of chemical bonds between the graphene and SiO(x) at high temperatures. The XPS depth profiling confirms that C-O and C=O chemical bond formation occurs at the graphene/SiO(x) interface. These results could be adapted for graphene/Si nanoelectronics device fabrication and they open up a pathway towards producing reliable solid state devices.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adhesiveness
  • Graphite / chemistry*
  • Materials Testing
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Microscopy, Scanning Probe
  • Nanostructures / chemistry
  • Nanotechnology / methods*
  • Optics and Photonics
  • Photoelectron Spectroscopy
  • Silicon / chemistry
  • Spectrum Analysis, Raman
  • Surface Properties
  • Transistors, Electronic


  • Graphite
  • Silicon