The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
ENIGMA and the individual: Predicting factors that affect the brain in 35 countries worldwide.Neuroimage. 2017 Jan 15;145(Pt B):389-408. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.11.057. Epub 2015 Dec 4. Neuroimage. 2017. PMID: 26658930 Free PMC article. Review.
EnigmaVis: online interactive visualization of genome-wide association studies of the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium.Twin Res Hum Genet. 2012 Jun;15(3):414-8. doi: 10.1017/thg.2012.17. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2012. PMID: 22856375 Free PMC article.
ENIGMA and global neuroscience: A decade of large-scale studies of the brain in health and disease across more than 40 countries.Transl Psychiatry. 2020 Mar 20;10(1):100. doi: 10.1038/s41398-020-0705-1. Transl Psychiatry. 2020. PMID: 32198361 Free PMC article. Review.
Multi-site genetic analysis of diffusion images and voxelwise heritability analysis: a pilot project of the ENIGMA-DTI working group.Neuroimage. 2013 Nov 1;81:455-469. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.04.061. Epub 2013 Apr 28. Neuroimage. 2013. PMID: 23629049 Free PMC article.
An overview of the first 5 years of the ENIGMA obsessive-compulsive disorder working group: The power of worldwide collaboration.Hum Brain Mapp. 2020 Mar 10. doi: 10.1002/hbm.24972. Online ahead of print. Hum Brain Mapp. 2020. PMID: 32154629 Review.
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The Translational Potential of Neuroimaging Genomic Analyses To Diagnosis And Treatment In The Mental Disorders.Proc IEEE Inst Electr Electron Eng. 2019 May;107(5):912-927. doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2019.2913145. Epub 2019 May 9. Proc IEEE Inst Electr Electron Eng. 2019. PMID: 32051642 Free PMC article.
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