This article introduces a new model of Pavlovian conditioning, attention as an acquisition and performance variable (AAPV), which, like several other so-called attentional models, emphasizes the role of variation of cue salience, together with associative strength, in accounting for conditioning phenomena. AAPV is primarily (but not exclusively) a performance-focused model in that it assumes not only that both the saliences and associative strengths of cue representations change during acquisition, but also that they are both influential at the time of test in determining responding. Different weights are given to the representations' associative strengths according to the representations' respective saliences at test. The model also treats the representation of a stimulus that is directly activated by presentation of that stimulus as distinct from the representation of the same stimulus that is activated by presenting a companion of the stimulus. Additionally, extinction is viewed as resulting from a decrease in the salience of the cue's representation, rather than a decrease in associative strength. Simulations of several Pavlovian phenomena are presented in order to illustrate the model and assess its robustness.