Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin plus metformin (A + M) initial combination therapy versus either as monotherapy in drug-naïve T2DM patients.
Methods: This international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 26-week study involved T2DM patients with hyperglycaemia (HbA1c 7.5-10.0%) following diet/exercise therapy. Patients (N = 784) received placebo, alogliptin (A, 12.5 mg BID or 25 mg QD), metformin (M, 500 or 1000 mg BID) or A + M (12.5/500 or 12.5/1000 mg BID); placebo, A25 for secondary analyses only.
Endpoints: week 26 changes from baseline in HbA1c (primary), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (PPG); incidences of clinical response and hyperglycaemic rescue.
Results: Week 26 mean HbA1c reductions from baseline (8.45%) were -1.22 and -1.55% with A + M 12.5/500 and 12.5/1000 versus -0.56, -0.65, and -1.11% with A12.5, M500 and M1000 (p<0.001, A + M vs. component monotherapies). FPG reductions were -1.76 and -2.55 mmol/L with 12.5/500 and 12.5/1000 versus -0.54, -0.64 and -1.78 mmol/L with A12.5, M500 and M1000 (p < 0.05, A + M vs. component monotherapies). Significantly more A + M-treated patients achieved HbA1c < 7% (47.1-59.5% vs. 20.2-34.3% with monotherapy), significantly fewer required hyperglycaemic rescue (2.6-12.3% vs. 10.8-22.9% with monotherapy). A + M caused only mild/moderate hypoglycaemia (1.9-5.3%) and weight loss (0.6-1.2 kg).
Conclusions: Alogliptin plus metformin initial combination therapy was well tolerated yet more efficacious in controlling glycaemia in drug-naïve T2DM patients than either as monotherapy.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01023581.
Keywords: DPP-4; T2DM; alogliptin; coadministration; combination therapy; dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor; metformin; monotherapy; type 2 diabetes mellitus.
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.