Replenish the source within: Rescuing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes by double checkpoint blockade

Oncoimmunology. 2013 Oct 1;2(10):e25912. doi: 10.4161/onci.25912. Epub 2013 Aug 2.


We have recently reported that the PD-1 and CTLA4 signaling pathways are active in both effector and regulatory T cells, causing profound immune dysfunctions in the tumor microenvironment. In line with this notion, the dual blockade of PD-1- and CTLA4-conveyed signals may exert robust therapeutic effects. Here, we discuss the mechanisms possibly underlying such a synergic interaction.

Keywords: CTLA4; PD-1; regulatory T cells; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; vaccine.