The Ussing method was adapted to study the basal electrolyte transfer as well as the events that occur upon odorant stimulation in frog olfactory mucosa. The unstimulated short-circuit current was due mainly to a furosemide-sensitive ion transport system on the apical side of the olfactory mucosa. This current was not amiloride sensitive. The current-voltage relationship of the unstimulated state was linear. That of the odorant-evoked current was non-linear and amiloride-sensitive. Ouabain caused collapse of both the unstimulated and odorant-stimulated short-circuit current. In this case, voltage-clamping the tissue to non-zero values restored the odorant-evoked current with polarity depending on that of the clamping voltage. This suggested that the direction of the current is determined by that of the sodium electrochemical potential difference. Our results indicate that the unstimulated short-circuit current occurs through an apical sodium cotransport system, while the odorant-evoked current is due to odorant-activated, passive sodium channels that are amiloride sensitive.