Typical lignocellulosic wastes and by-products for biosorption process in water and wastewater treatment: a critical review

Bioresour Technol. 2014 May;160:57-66. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.037. Epub 2013 Dec 19.


Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes and by-products has been identified as a proper alternative to the existing technologies applied for toxic metal ion and dye removal from wastewater streams. This paper deals with utilization of typical low cost wastes and by-products produced in different food agricultural and agro-industries as biosorbent and reviews the current state of studies on a wide variety of cheap biosorbents in natural and modified forms. The efficiency of each biosorbent has been also discussed with respect to the operating conditions (e.g. temperature, hydraulic residence time, initial metal concentration, biosorbent particle size and its dosage), chemical modification on sorption capacity and preparation methods, as well as thermodynamics and kinetics.

Keywords: Biosorption; Heavy metals; Lignocellulosic wastes; Low cost biosorbent.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adsorption
  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Lignin / chemistry*
  • Wastewater / chemistry*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / isolation & purification
  • Water Purification / methods*


  • Waste Water
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • lignocellulose
  • Lignin